Metamaterials are artificial materials with optical properties being determined by their microstructure. They show properties, such as optical magnetism and negative refraction, which can't be observed in natural material.

The fabrication of three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures is one of the key challenges in the field of artificial photonic materials since conventional semiconductor technologies mainly allow for the fabrication of quasi-planar structures only. However, truly three-dimensional bulk nanostructures are urgently in need to be implemented into novel application platforms. Such technologies could finally lead to complete spatial and spectral control of light in visionary optical devices like super lenses or transformation optical applications such as invisibility cloaks.

In our group we tackle this challenge by experimentally evaluating novel routes to combine top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication methods. The main goal is to provide cost- and time-effective techniques to assemble lithographically defined nanostructures in three-dimensional ensembles. Our particular interest is the fabrication of amorphous metamaterials. Therefor we developed new processes for two different approaches to achieve three-dimensional bulk nanomaterials. Through measurement of their optical properties the effects of disorder on the resonances in effective permeability and permittivity should be explored. Figure 1 illustrates the experimental setup of one developed process.

Fig.2: Illustration of an amorphous
        three-dimensional bulk nano-
Fig.1: Experimental setup of one developed
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